由我寻找艾莉森的追求驱动’s 茴香 (A.艾里森尼) in the wild, a few weeks ago I dove into a pit of research papers to look for known sightings 和/or colonies of A.艾里森尼 in Florida. I came upon a few vague notations of a colony in Naples with an address included. So, as part of a herping trip for various 茴香 和 蜥蜴s to Miami last week, I stopped in Naples along the way.
I drove to the address 和, after parking 和 entering the 是a, the first thing I saw was a large male specimen of A.艾里森尼 perched on the side of a palm tree. Shocked 和 delighted, I snapped a picture.
男一 利西尼 被一位大雄性栖息在棕榈树上 A. 萨格里 （棕Anole）在他下面。当我接近手掌以获取更清晰的图像时， 萨格里 leaped off the palm onto a smaller scrub, 和 the 阿里森尼 followed right after. The two briefly scuffled, nipping at each other before both went 其 separate ways 和 I did not see them again.
Strolling around the 是a to search for more, I found a very small green juvenile anole. It appeared to be 阿里森尼 , but did not give me enough time to properly examine it before scuttling up a tree 和 into the canopy.
出现：Anolis carolinensis is a beautiful green 蜥蜴, growing 到大约8英寸 length, including the tail. Males 是 larger 比 females 和 have proportionally larger heads. The dewlap is usually pink (but can also be grayish or greenish), 和 is much larger in males 比 in females. Green 茴香 can undergo dramatic color changes, from bright green to dull olive, 棕色, 和 even yellowish. For this reason, many people in Florida call them “chameleons,” although the green anole’s color-changing ability is modest compared to the true chameleons (Chamaeleonidae) of Africa 和 Madagascar.
Ecology 和 Habitat: The green anole’s body shape is that of a trunk-crown 生态形态。 But with no other native 茴香 sharing its range in the southeastern U.S., it historically ranged from the ground to the treetops, making it more of a habitat generalist 比 Greater Antillean trunk-crown 茴香. Today, it shares much of its range with the 棕色 or festive anole (A. 萨格里), a Cuban species introduced to Florida around the turn of the 20th century. Many observers believe that the 棕色 anole is driving a decline in green anole populations. This may be true in some places, but another possibility is that green 茴香 spend more time in the trees where they coexist with 棕色的肛门. 在 fact, in 是as where 这些 two species coexist, the green anole is usually seen on higher perches 比 the 棕色 anole (which, as a trunk-ground ecomorph, is 通常 found within a couple of meters of the ground).
Green 茴香 是 active foragers, moving around trees 和 shrubs in search of prey. They primarily eat insects 和 spiders, but will also prey on small vertebrates, consume fruit, 和 even drink nectar from flowers.
地理范围 和 Biogeography: Anolis 卡罗莱那州 lives throughout the southeastern U.S., from Florida to North Carolina on the Atlantic coast, 和 west along the Gulf coast through Texas, all the way to the Rio Grande.
其最接近的亲属是 the Cuban trunk-crown species, A. porcatus. Genetic analyses show that the green anole is probably descended from A. porcatus populations from western 古巴 which probably dispersed over water to Florida. The extent of genetic differences 之间 A. porcatus 和 A. 卡罗莱那州 suggest that 这些 two species have evolved independently for at least 6 million years, which means that humans played no role in the original colonization of North America 由 ancestors of today’s A. 卡罗莱那州.
Finally, the green anole itself has become 已建立 in many places outside its native range, probably because of its popularity in the pet trade. Today, you can find A. 卡罗莱那州 in the Pacific (Hawaii, Guam, Palau, 和 other islands), the 加勒比海 (Grand Bahama, Anguilla, Grand 鳄鱼), 和 in southern Japan.
Anolis 卡罗莱那州 is a very 好-studied species. 在 a charming 1876 paper titled “佛罗里达变色龙，” the Rev. S. Lockwood recounts detailed observations of his pet green anole, a 蜥蜴 he called “Nolie,” 和 concludes that the green anole “…is everything that is commendable; clean, inoffensive, pretty, 和 wonderfully entertaining; provoking harmless mirth, 和 stirring up in the thinker the profoundest depths of his philosophy.”
Since the late 19th century, biologists have learned a great deal about the green anole, 和 it has become a 模式生物 for studying many aspects of reptile biology, including the regulation of behavior 和 reproduction 通过 hormones, social behavior 和 communication, 和 the biology of regeneration (because, like most 茴香, the green anole can lose 和 re-grow its tail). 在 2011, because of its key role in many subdisciplines of biology, the green anole became the first reptile species to have its entire genome sequenced.
A few recent studies 是 particularly fascinating. Recall that green 茴香 coexist with invasive 棕色的肛门 (A. 萨格里) in parts of 其 range (see Ecology 和 Habitat above). 在 a 2014 study, Yoel Stuart, Todd Campbell, 和 colleagues studied 这些 two species in Florida 通过 introducing 棕色的肛门 to a subset of small, manmade islands that were already inhabited 通过 green 茴香. They 发现 not only did green 茴香 move to higher perches on the islands they shared with 棕色的肛门, but that over a period of 15 years, the green 茴香 evolved larger toe pads 和 more toe pad lamellae (both traits associated with better climbing ability). This may be the best evidence yet that competition 之间 anole species can drive 其 evolutionary diversification.
Green 茴香 were in the news again after a 2017 study 通过 Shane Campbell-Staton 和 colleagues. Studying green 茴香 in Texas, they measured the 蜥蜴s’ cold tolerance before 和 after the winter of 2013-2014, when Texas experienced an abnormally cold “polar vortex” event. Their results show that the extreme cold caused natural selection on the 茴香, with southerly populations exhibiting greater cold tolerance after the 2014 polar vortex, on average, 比 before. Campbell-Staton also 采用d cutting-edge genetic techniques to identify some of the genes that may be involved in cold tolerance.
出现： The 凤头 anole, cristatellus， is a medium sized lizard （成年男性50-75mm SVL） with a stocky body 和 relatively long limbs. It is light 棕色 in color and both males 和 females have varying patterns of dark brown on 其 backs including mottled coloration, hourglass patterns, 和 longitudinal stripes. As the common name implies, many individuals 有一个 large tail crest (different from the nuchal crest that can be erected in many species), although there is substantial regional variation in this trait 和 many individuals have no tail fan at all. Dewlap color is 通常 two-toned with a yellow center 和 a thick 橙色外缘，尽管有些种群 have a 更单调的橘黄色 dewlap. Females 是 smaller 比 males (30-45mm SVL adults) 和 have relatively small dewlaps. Post-anal scales 是 not easily visible in this species, sometimes making it difficult to distinguish females from juvenile males.
在本地范围内，该双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码可能与 Anolis gundlachi and Anolis cooki. Anolis gundlachi 可以区别于 cristatellus by the yellow-tipped chin, blue eye, 和 solid yellow dewlap, but is otherwise similar in size 和 appearance. Anolis cooki 更难以区分 cristatellus, but the two only co-occur in the dry 森林s of southern Puerto Rico. In 其 non-native range in Florida, this species may be confused with Anolis sagrei, which is slightly smaller in size 和 has a dewlap that is red-orange in the center with a thin band of yellow on the edge.
Ecology 和 Habitat: The 凤头 anole is a trunk-ground ecomorph. It typically perches relatively low to the ground (around 2m high or lower) on broad diameter trees. It is often observed in foraging position on tree trunks with head downward as it sits 和 waits for insect prey 经过地面。 It 通常 eats insects 和 蜘蛛，但也已知会消耗 fruits 和 to prey on small 脊椎动物，包括 anoles of 其 own 和 other species. 除了在栖息地之间移动或捕获猎物以外，很少在地面上看到该双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码。 像其他树干地面的生态形态一样 cristatellus, has relatively long limbs 和 a stocky build ideal for quickly navigating both arboreal 和 ground habitat. cristatellus is commonly found at lower elevations in warm 森林 habitats 和 is often restricted to edge or open, disturbed 森林 habitat at cooler, high elevations. This species is the most common 和 abundant anole in urban 是as in Puerto Rico.
地理范围 and Biogeography: cristatellus is endemic to the Puerto Rican bank (Puerto Rico 和 the Virgin Islands). 其最接近的亲属是 A. desechensis，仅在 Desecheo 在波多黎各的西海岸。它也与 A. scriptus （发现 in the Turks 和 Caicos) ， 一种。 cooki （发现 in dry 森林s in the southwest of Puerto Rico), and A. monensis （发现 在波多黎各海岸的蒙娜娜岛上）。 遗传分析表明，祖先 cristatellus (and 构成“ cristatellus”的其他12个波多黎各人 group) 可能殖民了波多黎各 from Hispaniola at least 40 MYA. More recently, cristatellus 在其本地范围之外的多个地方建立了办事处， 很大程度上由 sale of tropical plants. In particular, it is established in Miami (Florida), 多米尼加 , 哥斯达黎加 , 墨西哥（尤卡坦州），特立尼达， Saint Martin, 和多米尼加共和国。
cristatellus 是一个伟大的研究双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码 answering 这么多不同的问题！ 作为波多黎各人最广泛的双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码，它非常适合进行比较研究。 研究人员发现他们可以回答的问题没有止境 检查内部的变化 cristatellus in different environments 和 between cristatellus 和 other 波多黎各人的双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码。
出现： 圆角茴香, the bark anole, is a medium sized anole with a body color that varies from gray, to 棕色, to green – depending on the population. Body coloration is similar in both sexes but females 可以区别于 males 通过 其 lack of a dewlap, smaller adult size, and a relatively flatter head 比 males. Male dewlap color in this species is widely variable with populations ranging from pale white or yellow, to populations with variably sized red or orange spot in the center, to populations with entirely red or orange dewlaps. Bark 茴香 co-occur with a variety of species, most of which can be easily distinguished as different ecomorphs with larger heads or bodies such as Crown Giant 和 Trunk Ground 茴香, or more slender frames such as of Trunk Crown, Grass Bush 和 Twig 茴香. 在 Haiti 和 the 多米尼加 n Republic, the range of bark 茴香 overlaps with those of other closely-related trunk anole species – 短毛Anolis, 尾部无尾鳄, 马诺Anolis ， 腹轮虫. These species all 有一个 black spot on 其 neck, which is lacking in 圆角茴香.
Ecology 和 Habitat:圆角茴香 是 trunk 茴香, an ecomorph with a compact body plan – short snout 和 tail, with a relatively wide midsection. Trunk 茴香 like 圆角茴香 primarily occupy the vertical surfaces of trees, usually below the canopy. They 是 found in a wide variety of natural habitats including xeric scrub to mesic humid 森林s as 好 as human-created habitats like buildings, parks, fruit tree groves, 和 residential 是as. Unlike other ecomorphs that flee up trees or run to the ground when approached, bark 茴香 often shimmy to the opposite side of the trunk, a behavior commonly referred to as “squirrelling”. Bark 茴香 will eat nearly any prey that can fit in 其 mouth but 其 primary 饮食 includes small arthropods like crickets, 甲虫 , 和 even 蜜蜂 ! Bark 茴香 是 especially fond of 蚂蚁 .
地理范围 and Biogeography: Bark 茴香 是 native to Hispaniola (Haiti 和 the 多米尼加 n Republic) 和 the central Bahamas. Although they were once considered native to Florida, genetic data suggests 这些 populations 是 the result of multiple introductions 来自西班牙 和 the Bahamas some of which occurred at least 50 years ago. They 是 thought to be introduced to Abaco Island in the northern Bahamas, but 该双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码的化石证据 on Abaco puts the status of this population into question. Phylogenetic evidence finds that bark 茴香 arose on the northern paleo-island of Hispaniola, dispersed over-water to colonize the the Bahamas, 和 spread to areas of to the southern Hispaniolan paleo-island after the two paleo-islands fused to form present day Hispaniola.
The immense variation in body 和 dewlap color in bark 茴香 has led to the 18个亚种的描述 圆角茴香. 研究 目前正在进行中 seeks to understand if 这些 subspecies 是 in the process of speciation or have perhaps already achieved species status.
Bark 茴香 have long been the intensive research effort with particular interest in using bark 茴香 to understand 1) the evolution of signals and 2) the process of speciation.
Most anole species possess 和 make extensive 采用 of 其 colorful dewlaps for signaling to each other as 好 as other species. A series of studies led 通过 吴 已经表明去污色是一种 遗传性状 and is 与信令环境相关 那只动物占据。令人兴奋的研究， 目前正在进行中 通过 温特·贝克尔斯, seeks to understand if bark anole populations shift 其 dewlap color in response to changes in 其 light environment caused 通过 hurricanes.
吴茱莉也发现 一些具有不同露水的亚种可以自由杂交 over a wide geographic 是a. 在 contrast, other subspecies pairs 是 confined to a narrow hybrid zone suggesting that, for 这些 subspecies pairs, hybridization may have negative fitness consequences 和 those populations may be in the process of speciation. Research I performed as part of my dissertation also 发现 transitions in dewlap color 是 associated with diversification events suggesting dewlap divergence may play in role in driving or maintaining speciation events. We also found evidence found that there 是 more distinct lineages that previously recognized within the 圆角茴香 组和一个亚种– 斑 实际上是三个独立的血统。我与本科生研究员（现为耶鲁大学博士生）进行的工作是丹尼尔·麦圭根（Daniel MacGuigan）使用的多双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码合并方法来评估 圆角茴香 代表一个双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码或多个双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码。我们 找到了至少七个不同双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码的支持 in the 组, but at present we have not updated the taxonomy because the boundaries 之间 这些 species remain unclear, particularly for the separate lineages of 多米草.
出现：Anolis sagrei 可能不是最丰富多彩的 strikingly patterned anole, but owing to its widespread distribution 和 high abundance it may the anole most familiar to you. 成人通常长到 7-8 雌性从头到尾的英寸 比男性小几英寸。他们的肤色从浅棕褐色到 gray to dark 棕色, almost black. Unlike green 茴香 that can turn 棕色, 这些 guys 是 never green! Males have red-orange dewlaps, sometimes with a yellow border or blotches. Females often 有一个 pattern with diamonds, bars, or a stripe running down 其 back. When in south Florida don’t confuse 棕色的肛门 with crested anoles (Anolis cristatellus). Crested anole females only 有一个 cream-colored stripe on 其 backs, 和 棕色 anoles do not 有一个 light ring around the eye or a light stripe above 其 front limb. Brown 茴香 often have two dark bars above 其 eyes.
Ecology 和 Habitat: 棕色的Anole是树干地面栖息地专家 or ecomorph. They 是 often found on the ground or perching low on tree trunks (up to 1.5 m high). Brown 茴香 have relatively long limbs for 其 body size, which allows them to run fast on the ground 和 tree trunks that they 通常 occupy. Brown 茴香 是 usually sit-and-wait foragers, keying in on the movement of prey to jump from 其 perch 和 attack. Their diet consists of a wide variety of arthropods including most any spiders 和 insects they can fit in mouths. 他们偶尔会吃 other invertebrates 和 small vertebrates including 自己的小鱼苗。 Brown 茴香 primarily occupy disturbed 和 edge habitats in both natural 和 human-modified landscapes. Their abundances suggest they 是 just as at home in the city as in natural 是as. Like tourists at the beach, 这些 guys love the sun – they 是 often active during the hottest parts of the day. All anole species display, but brown anoles 是 the champions – they 是 often seen fanning 其 brightly colored dewlaps, 和 doing head-bobs 和 push-ups with the intensity 和 stamina of an Olympic athlete.
地理范围 and Biogeography: 棕色茴香的天然范围 包括巴哈马， Belize, Cuba, Cayman Brac, Little 鳄鱼, Swan Island 和 the 墨西哥湾/加勒比海 墨西哥海岸。它的进化起源 作为15种双色球开奖结果双今天开奖号码的一部分 sagrei group 是古巴发生了许多殖民事件 Caribbean 古巴东部和西部的岛屿 完善其本机范围。所有肛门中最好的天然定居者之一，棕色肛门 are 也是最近人类介导的介绍的无可争议的冠军。 Non-native populations 是 well 在世界各地建立 包括美国东南部 (e.g. Alabama, 佛罗里达，乔治亚州，德克萨斯州）， Atlantic islands （例如。 Ascension, Bermuda), Caribbean islands （例如。 Grand 鳄鱼, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Vincent), and Pacific islands （例如。 Hawaii, Taiwan), among other locations 有新介绍的报告 every year. 遗传分析揭示 multiple origins of these 引进人口 from numerous localities in Cuba as 好 as the Bahamas 和 Belize. A key discovery about 这些 introductions is that genetic variation from 这些 multiple native-range sources mixes within non-native populations, resulting in increased genetic variation compared to native-range populations.
If Anolis carolinensis (green anole) is the “lab rat”爬行动物世界的话 Anolis sagrei is undoubtedly the “field rat.” This species has been studied extensively in the field from populations on small islands in the Bahamas to the heart of the city 在迈阿密. A 好-studied natural history, high local abundance, 和 the ability to tag individuals for unique identification make this species ideal for field studies of natural selection. We have learned that natural selection acts on morphological, physiological 和 behavioral traits of 棕色的肛门. For 例如，自然选择有利于更长的时间 hindlimbs in the presence of terrestrial predators (curly-tailed 蜥蜴s, Leiocephalus carinatus) and 较高的最佳性能温度 habitats. 其他研究表明，在引入新岛屿后，肢体对当地植被的适应性反应。 A recent study 通过 Oriol Lapiedra and colleagues evaluated whether natural selection acts on variation in risk-taking behavior of 棕色的肛门 when they occupy small islands with 和 without the ground predator 头颅 carinatus. Brown 茴香 that avoided the ground in lab trials were favored in the presence of the predator, whereas more exploratory 棕色的肛门 survived better in the absence of the predator. Moreover, selection on behavior 和 morphology acted independently. 该实验是迄今为止最好的研究之一，表明自然选择会影响行为。
Brown 茴香 是 also a key species in studies of the consequences of global environmental change, including biological invasions, climate change, 和 urbanization. Recent studies of non-native 棕色的肛门 在迈阿密 通过 Jason Kolbe 和 his lab discovered that 棕色的肛门 living in the city 与 their forest counterparts – city 蜥蜴s 对人类更宽容，更少进取，更多 exploratory in new environments, 和 bolder after simulated predator attacks. Cities also dramatically alter the ecological niche space occupied 通过 棕色的肛门. Urban heat islands produce warmer microclimates that allow 棕色的肛门 to more often attain 其 preferred body temperatures during the summer 在迈阿密, likely increasing 其 ability to persist in some 是as. Brown 茴香 prefer to perch on 广泛的基质，例如树干， 而城市化通常会导致 smaller trees and the addition of broad diameter 人造的 structures, such as light posts 和 utility poles. This leads brown 茴香 to use broader perches in urban 是as despite the fact 这些 artificial substrates 是 often quite smooth 和 蜥蜴s slip 和 fall when using them.